Tag Archives: HUG

AFRICAN TREE NURSERIES

TREE NURSERIES for CARBON EMISSIONS

More than 92 percent of all nurseries catering to villages are still located at regional and district levels. As a result, seedlings have to be transported long distances, sometimes even beyond 50 km. The inadequacy of transport is one of the major setbacks in tree-planting, in terms of both availability and cost. All efforts must be made to decentralize Africa tree nurseries as much as conditions allow.

To bridge this energy supply-demand gap, a massive amount of tree-planting is needed. The natural forest is shrinking very fast, and most alternative energy sources have had no significant impact so far.

One of the main reasons tree-planting is failing among some African communities is that they are often given species only for firewood, like eucalyptus. 

 Weak village leadership contributes directly to delays over deciding whether to plant trees or not; and then, even if trees are planted, it can retard or neglect maintenance.

THE NEXT STEP: ORCHARDS AND BIOCHAR

Each woman farmer and their family will begin the task of preparing to plant 300 fruit and nut trees on their leased 1.5 acre farms, Every tree will need a 2- 3 feet diameter excavation, where a biochar earth mound will be built of branches.

AFRICAN TREE NURSERIES
AFRICAN TREE NURSERIES

EARTH MOUND KILN

biochar mound

The earth mound kiln is built in the following manner:

The bottom of the base is covered with logs forming a grate or crib on which the wood is piled vertically. The grate forms a free space between the bottom and the wood charge through which the air necessary for the carbonization process passes. The piled wood is covered with leaves and grass and then earth about 20 cm (8”) thick.

The pile has an outside stack made of steel drums, which is connected to the pile through a flue cut into the ground, running under the pile and covered with round logs. The pile has a number of air vents located around the circular base.

biochar soil management

The carbonization process is started by introducing a torch into the firing flue opposite the stack. This type of pile is reported to be easy to operate to produce good charcoal quality with a yield of 55% charcoal to wood by volume. The pile’s volume varies from 100 to 250 m³ of wood. The whole cycle takes 24 days; four days for charging, six days for carbonization, ten days for cooling and four days for discharge.

 Carbon Emission to be Solved

The world leaders must find a way to absorb carbon dioxide emissions that is in our atmosphere now. Trees and soils are the only way to absorb the present glut of CO2 in your world. Continue reading AFRICAN TREE NURSERIES

CARBON TAX: Not Enough 2

Carbon Tax Failure: NOT Enough

There is a failure of the press to cover urgency of carbon tax. Carbon should not flow unpriced into the atmosphere, any more than you should be allowed to toss your garbage in the street. It makes no sense that the fossil fuel industry is allowed to put out their waste for free, using the atmosphere as an open sewer.

Nearly all of those decisions share a common, crucial element: they are shaped, by the relative prices of available energy choices. The only way to get enough change is to send a price signal so that everyone from investors to car buyers will change their behavior automatically:  a kind of perpetual motion machine. 

A straightforward plan is simply to tax carbon directly. Canada has introduced the gradual approach of a $10/ton of carbon emissions to finally get the ball rolling, while some of the provinces have elected to increase this tax to $30/ton.  In the meantime, Exxon has been planning for $50 a ton to make sure it won’t put a crimp in their business.  

Yes, carbon tax is inevitable but one thing stands in the way: PRICE POINT.  If we want to move the needle, we have to move the market. We need a top down message. A steadily rising tax on fossil fuels will send a strong price signal. A proposed carbon tax pending in the New York state legislature (A.B. 8372:  proposes to increase the tax gradually from $35 to $185 per ton.) 

Is that the only thing that needs to be done?

Continue reading CARBON TAX: Not Enough 2

DEFORESTATION PREVENTION 2

PREVENTING DEFORESTATION

Preventing deforestation is our best chance to conserve wildlife and defend the rights of forest communities. It’s one of the quickest and most cost effective ways to curb global warming.

Worldwide, two billion hectares of land are currently degraded – an area larger than South America. Of this, 500 million hectares are abandoned agricultural land.

The amount of under-utilized and degraded land available in the region to accommodate for future agricultural expansion is estimated at 0.7-1 million hectares.

The Suitability Mapper enables users to identify potentially suitable sites for sustainable palm oil production in the following area:

How do we prevent further deforestation?

It is still economically valuable to clear the forest for plantations. As current agricultural land becomes more and more degraded, producers move on to pristine, more productive land, with often harmful consequences such as the loss of forest cover.

If we’re going to stop deforestation, we need governments to do their part. That starts with cracking down on corruption and ensuring fair enforcement of forest conservation rules. Corruption fuels illegal logging and unsustainable forest management.

 Carbon Emission to be Solved

The world leaders must find a way to absorb carbon dioxide emissions that is in our atmosphere now. Trees and soils are the only way to absorb the present glut of CO2 in your world.

Presently these funds are improperly managed because they attempt to make the tax neutral by redirecting the fund for tax rebates to working families, cutting sales tax and reducing the tax on manufacturing. All this is very admirable but it doesn’t solve the high concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, which is presently causing global warming.

carbon dioxide conversion

The Funds to Finance Rehabilitation

Continue reading DEFORESTATION PREVENTION 2

CARBON EMISSIONS 2

Not Lower Present Carbon Emissions

A carbon tax is a great idea, if we had a government honest enough to implement it properly. We should all be concerned with carbon emissions that will be present in our atmosphere for 200 years. Surveys have found high majorities of economists (more than 80 per cent) also support carbon pricing. Justin Trudeau announced a carbon price for all of Canada, starting at a modest $10/ton of CO2 ($0.025/liter of fuel) in 2018 and rising over five years to $50 ($0.125/liter of fuel). The carbon tax would cost the average family about $1,250- $1,500 a year. So it means that we will be paying more for everything. That’s because almost all goods and services consume fossil fuel energy. This is a form of paying a sin tax for using energy, which may not lower emissions. (The $10/ton is equivalent to $0.09/US gal.)

British Columbia’s revenue-neutral carbon tax on fuel is equivalent to $30 per ton of emissions. In Alberta, a carbon levy will be applied to fuels at a rate of $20 per ton, starting Jan. 1, 2017, increasing to $30 per ton a year later.

Anyone familiar with carbon pricing knows Trudeau’s minimum price, even at $50 per ton, is far too low to significantly cut emissions. If Canada has any chance of meeting its target, which used to be reducing our emissions to 17% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 30% by 2030, he would need to set a carbon price of about $150 per ton, starting immediately.

Some pricing experts like Simon Fraser University’s Mark Jaccard estimated that the floor price should be $30/ton increasing every year until 2030 to $200/ton.  This would be an equivalent of $0.47/liter of gasoline or $1.77/US gal.  (1 liter = .264 US gal). Obviously, there would have to be an offsetting general tax reduction so as not to act as an extra burden to the average tax payer.

The Norwegian carbon taxes started in 1991 and were among the highest in the world ($44 US/ton of CO2). Despite significant price increases for some fuel types (13% for gasoline), the carbon tax effect on emissions was modest (a 16 % reduction in emissions). This implies a high cost of reducing emissions from sources on which the tax is levied.

The real enemy is heat and us.

Continue reading CARBON EMISSIONS 2

GIVE ME A HUG! 2

HUG HYDRO APPLICATIONS

 Based on the Vortex or a physical phenomena of the Spiral:hug-sample
hug lucid helical turbine

HUG (Helical Unique Generation): a new alternate source of hydroelectric energy without a dam. HUG Energy is a New Good, which has never been seen before; it substantially deviates from any other good or service produced before. Over the past decades, no major breakthroughs have occurred in the basic machinery of utilities.

Electricity in Remote Areas created from moving water without the use of a dam.

* HUG is an innovative new patent to create energy from fast moving water without the use of a destructive dam. It relies on the phenomena of the power of the vortex. This power can be easily seen as the water leaves your bathtub. This new energy source can be used to power water pumps for irrigation at a long distance from the fast moving water source.

It’s no secret that hydroelectricity sits near the top of the renewable energy list. But hydro invariably conjures images of soaring concrete dams, rerouted rivers and flooding, environmental damage and displaced people. Not to mention the stiff price tag that comes with such an immense engineering project. These large schemes using dams having long lead-times between investment and profit, which can be over 10 years. It can also use up to 2.2 million cubic meters of concrete.

Presently no new patents exist to capture energy from small waterfalls or fast rapids without extensive use of a dam, which in itself, limits fish migration. HUG Energy produces high energy from a hydroelectric turbine system, which in turn, generates a higher return of investment.

The objectives and expected outcomes

Standardized prefabricated modules should make it possible to order this new product as a “power plant kit” just like ordering from a catalog. The HUG Energy power plant uses standardized parts, so no custom engineering is necessary. A one-size-fits-all pathway could be ordered. In the case of wider bodies of water, several HUG Energy systems could be placed next to each other or behind each other – also at different points in time, as determined by demand and available financing.

This development is an exciting breakthrough in green energy. Small batches of turbines can be installed with only a short period between investment in the technology and the time when revenue starts to flow.  It is modular, relatively easy to install and highly scalable.

The inventor estimate that the HUG Energy power plant pathway will reduce costs of construction conservatively by over 75 percent initially compared to conventional dams of the same power. Continue reading GIVE ME A HUG! 2

Africa Micro Finance 2

Living Water Micro Finance in Africa 

is available from LIVING WATER MICRO FINANCE Inc., a non-profit corporation. Farmers can borrow small sums of money for seed and land rental on a short term basis. 

Let us look at the human side of  Low Interest Micro Finance :

“I got a loan from a Micro Finance company and planted mango grafts. It was difficult in the beginning because there was no income from the trees [during the first five years], and still I had to work very hard. I had to water and care for the trees and also work as a daily laborer whenever work was available. But when the mangoes began to bear, I had income every year. I could repay my loan easily. Then I was able to dig a well, and now I have water year round. Now that I have water I can run my own farm.

God has much to do; He is very busy running the universe. He does not need to take care of my farm anymore. Now I do that myself.”
Continue reading Africa Micro Finance 2

AFRICAN RENEWED PRODUCTIVITY 2

AFRICA’S AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY

‘Boosting Africa’s agricultural productivity is the “combined responsibility” of both Africans and their development partner, Living Water Is Corporation.

Organic Certification

Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. In general, any business directly involved in food production can be certified, including seed suppliers and farmers.certified_naturally_grown

Requirements vary from country to country, and generally involve a set of production standards for growing, storage, processing, packaging and shipping that include:

  • No human sewage sludge fertilizer used in cultivation of plants or feed of animals
  • Avoidance of synthetic chemical inputs not on the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances (e.g. fertilizer, pesticides, antibiotics, food additives, etc.), genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and the use of sewage sludge;
  • Use of farmland that has been free from prohibited synthetic chemicals for a number of years (often, three or more); In Europe, the total available land is only 4%.
  • Keeping detailed written production & sales records (audit trail);
  • Maintaining strict physical separation of organic products from non-certified products;
  • Undergoing periodic on-site inspections.

micro-loan4Regulatory Certification is a potential barrier to entry for small African producers, by burdening them with increased costs, paperwork, and bureaucracy. The private farmer-to-farmer association, Certified Naturally Grown, offers a “non-profit alternative eco-labeling program for small farms that grow using USDA (Department of Agriculture) Organic methods but are not a part of the USDA Certified Organic program.”
The program is operated in the United States by a non-profit corporation, Certified Naturally Grown Ltd. Certified Naturally Grown standards are based on the USDA National Organic Program standards. Farmers are not normally permitted to use the word “organic” to describe their products.

Vertical Integration

We will provide the quality control necessary to assure our produce meets with “organic” regulations.

We will manage 21 heavy duty cargo tricycles. These cargo tricycles will be used to move heat sensitive cash crops including fish all along the 120 km distance to a major city center within several hours. Our waiting refrigerated container truck will travel to a major port city. Alternatively this produce will be held in our cold storage facility.certified_naturally_grown3-tricycle

The Storage Facility

Continue reading AFRICAN RENEWED PRODUCTIVITY 2